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Albatross Transoceanic Flight will inspire AI MTA Boomerang

 
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Mustafa Umut Sarac
MTA-Dropper


Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 12:27    Titel: Albatross Transoceanic Flight will inspire AI MTA Boomerang Antworten mit Zitat

Albatross and Frigate birds crosses the oceans and travels around the world without flapping their wings.

They use thermals and ocean waves when push air vertically.

Some robots made to learn as fly as a albatrosses and findings says these birds senses vertical winds and rotational forces.

Birds, Eagles and others uses wind power as their flights power source and climbs on valleys and mountains to extreme heights.

Nature journal published a article which they were intalling a flight control unit in to 2 meters span model aircraft and learn to fly.

I think MTA boomerangs can be made to sense vertical wind speed and rotational forces by using onboard gps and gyro sensor and wind sensors and motion sensors. Wind sensors comes in two way , first pressure difference sensors second small wind wanes.

They are all available for UAVs.

The data collection can be made with cell phone and its computer or data collector on board.

Each flight is a lesson. For each lesson , longer flights might be made.

AND than, Artificial intelligence can be used to code a DSP chip and energy can be supplied from sun.

I will post many papers to your attention with google drive links and explanations.

By the way , flexing the boomerang wings or use of flaps , central gyro rotators , changing the axis of each wing , flapping wings are AFAIK not tried yet. But if they are imagined than they can be made.

Mustafa Umut Sarac
Istanbul


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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 12:33    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0533-0
Glider soaring via reinforcement learning in the field
Gautam reddy1,5, Jerome Wong-Ng1,5, Antonio Celani2, terrence J. Sejnowski3,4 & Massimo Vergassola1*

PAPER IS HEREBELOW:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/19sk5rdM_Gd4mSCUCLyX0FFdms1IuqFcM/view?usp=sharing

Soaring birds often rely on ascending thermal plumes (thermals)
in the atmosphere as they search for prey or migrate across large
distances1–4. The landscape of convective currents is rugged and
shifts on timescales of a few minutes as thermals constantly form,
disintegrate or are transported away by the wind5,6. How soaring
birds find and navigate thermals within this complex landscape
is unknown. Reinforcement learning7 provides an appropriate
framework in which to identify an effective navigational strategy as a
sequence of decisions made in response to environmental cues. Here
we use reinforcement learning to train a glider in the field to navigate
atmospheric thermals autonomously. We equipped a glider of twometre wingspan with a flight controller that precisely controlled
the bank angle and pitch, modulating these at intervals with the
aim of gaining as much lift as possible. A navigational strategy was
determined solely from the glider’s pooled experiences, collected
over several days in the field. The strategy relies on on-board
methods to accurately estimate the local vertical wind accelerations
and the roll-wise torques on the glider, which serve as navigational
cues. We establish the validity of our learned flight policy through
field experiments, numerical simulations and estimates of the noise
in measurements caused by atmospheric turbulence. Our results
highlight the role of vertical wind accelerations and roll-wise torques
as effective mechanosensory cues for soaring birds and provide a
navigational strategy that is directly applicable to the development
of autonomous soaring vehicles
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BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 12:43    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

How do albatrosses fly around the world without flapping their wings?
Philip L. Richardson ⇑
Department of Physical Oceanography, MS#29, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA

PAPER IS HEREBELOW:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1iBpRfSJrFOAQ3MxQwdhs4_Owx9QYek7s/view?usp=sharing

abstract
Albatrosses fly long distances over the Southern Ocean, even around the world, almost without flapping their wings; this has raised interest in how they perform such a feat. On a cruise to the South Atlantic I
observed albatrosses soaring in a characteristic swooping zigzag flight that appears to combine two soaring techniques to gain energy—wind–shear soaring (dynamic soaring) using the vertical gradient of wind
velocity and wave-slope soaring using updrafts over waves. The observed characteristic swooping flight is shown in a new illustration and interpreted in terms of the two soaring techniques. The energy gain estimated
for ‘‘typical conditions” in the Southern Ocean suggests that wind–shear soaring provides around 80–90% of the total energy required for sustained soaring. A much smaller percentage is provided by wind shear in light winds and significant swell when wave-slope soaring dominates. A simple dynamical model of wind–shear soaring is proposed based on the concept of a bird flying across a sharp wind–shear layer as first described by Lord Rayleigh in 1883 and later developed with Pennycuick’s (2002) description
of albatrosses ‘‘gust soaring.” In gust soaring a bird exploits structures in the wind field, such as separated boundary layers and eddies in the lee of wave crests, to obtain energy by climbing headed upwind
and descending headed downwind across a thin wind–shear layer. Benefits of the model are that it is simple to understand, it captures the essential dynamics of wind–shear soaring, and it provides reasonable
estimates of the minimum wind shear required for travel velocity in different directions with respect to the wind. Travel velocities, given in a travel velocity polar diagram, can be combined with tacking to fly in
an upwind direction faster than the wind speed located at the top of the wind–shear layer.

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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 13:31    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_N1Lb_d7lmD__EeeHrpFEjWxRO7cejcD/view?usp=sharing

PAPER IS HERE ABOVE.

Robotic Albatross
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BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 13:35    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HERE BELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PpeagSWlDLoLMipWDEpRRczik1-YZHlv/view?usp=sharing

Wind Energy Extraction by Birds and Flight Vehicles
Peter Lissaman*



Da Vinci Ventures, Santa Fe, NM 87505


When a bird or flight vehicle is oriented with a component of its lift vector aligned with the natural wind work is done on the flight system. Consequently, by suitable maneuvers, variations in wind speed can be used to add energy to the system. These procedures are used
by albatrosses and many other birds. The equations of motion are simplified by normalizing by the minimum drag speed and integrated numerically for control cycle involving angles of attack and bank. An energy neutral cycle, by which the vehicle returns to initial velocity and height with no power input depends only upon the maximum lift/drag ratio of the vehicle and the wind speed variation. The minimum speed difference occurs for a vertical or
horizontal step in wind speed. For a continuous wind profile a variational method is used to find the minimum gradient for a neutral energy cycle. Simple expressions are derived for the minimum wind variations for these two cases. The oceanic boundary layer, and the shear layer downwind of a ridge are also studied, and neutral energy wind criteria derived
for them. Birds and small UAV’s, with flight speeds comparable to atmospheric wind variations, can profit from wind energy extraction
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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 13:41    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HERE BELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1KpVMwcHjysAKFysPRXfxkq548-IzTR-X/view?usp=sharing

N. R. J. Lawrance
(Australian Centre for Field Robotics,
University of Sydney)
J. J. Acevedo
(University of Sevilla)
J. J. Chung, J. L. Nguyen,
D. Wilson, S. Sukkarieh
(Australian Centre for Field Robotics,
University of Sydney)
E-mail : n.lawrance@acfr.usyd.edu.au
DOI : 10.12762/2014.AL08-05


Long Endurance Autonomous Flight
for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles



This paper presents a summary of research performed at the University of Sydney towards extending the flight duration of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles. A historical context to extended flight is provided and particular attention is paid to research in autonomous soaring and aerial refueling. Autonomous soaring presents a unique set of challenges whereby an aircraft must autonomously identify sources of energy in the wind field and generate trajectories to exploit these conditions to collect energy. The basic mechanisms of soaring flight are examined and methods for generating energy gaining trajectories for exploration, information gathering and patrolling missions with multiple aircraft are detailed. Aerial refueling represents a complementary approach for extending flight duration, and the challenges and current efforts towards autonomous refueling between small aircraft are also detailed.
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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
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Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 13:47    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HEREBELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/19v_0I-bOH_hj8EdNlvNL46jX9vdjSmlk/view?usp=sharing

BOUNDARY LAYER DYNAMIC SOARING FOR AUTONOMOUS
AIRCRAFT: DESIGN AND VALIDATION


A DISSERTATION
SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICS AND
ASTRONAUTICS
AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES
OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


Abstract
Dynamic soaring is a flight technique used by albatrosses and other large seabirds to extract energy from wind gradients in the atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This technique enables them to fly for extended periods without flapping their wings, in some documented cases circumnavigating the globe. This work examines the application of dynamic soaring to propulsion of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
First, the equations of motion were derived and the energy transfer mechanisms were explained for a vehicle flying in a spatially and temporally varying wind field. Next, a robust and efficient dynamic soaring trajectory optimization method that forms the foundation for the remainder of the research was outlined. This method was used to solve for optimal periodic trajectories through a number of different wind fields. It was also used to investigate UAV designs that have the ability to extract electrical energy from their environment and store it on-board, allowing operations
during lulls in the wind. Vehicle speed polars were generated that show the maximum cross-country speed achievable as the a function of the wind speed and the crosscountry flight direction. The method of isochrones was applied to the long-range routing of dynamic soaring vehicles across the ocean by combining vehicle speed polars with satellite based ocean wind measurements.
As part of this work, a small UAV, dubbed Mariner, was designed to demonstrate autonomous boundary layer dynamic soaring over water. The objective of the UAV design problem was to minimize the required reference wind speed. Constraints were imposed on vehicle size and weight, and careful attention was paid to stability and control requirements imposed by the optimal trajectories. Sensors and sub-systems ivwere specified to allow for accurate state estimation in close proximity to the water surface. Experimentally, a small off-the-shelf airframe was flown to aid development of Mariner’s flight control hardware and software. An extended Kalman filter (EKF)was implemented for vehicle state and wind estimation and tuned through flight testing. In addition, a novel GPS tracking tag was designed and tested to improve our understanding of albatross dynamic soaring


Zuletzt bearbeitet von Mustafa Umut Sarac am 05.11.2018, 15:39, insgesamt einmal bearbeitet
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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 13:53    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HERE BELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1pKDAut8pajteaMgnehwIkY2ZvSCpfby5/view?usp=sharing


Upwind Dynamic Soaring of Albatrosses and UAVs

Philip L. Richardson
Department of Physical Oceanography MS#29
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
360 Woods Hole Road
Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA
May 21, 2014

Albatrosses have been observed to soar in an upwind direction using what is called here an upwind mode of dynamic soaring. The upwind mode is modeled using the dynamics of a two-layer Rayleigh cycle in which the lower layer has zero velocity and the upper layer has a uniform wind speed of W. The upwind mode consists of a climb across the wind-shear layer headed upwind, a 90° turn and descent across the wind- shear layer perpendicular to the wind, followed by a 90° turn into the wind. The increase of airspeed gained from crossing the wind-shear layer headed upwind is balanced by the decrease of airspeed caused by drag. Results show that a wandering albatross can soar over the ocean in an upwind direction at a mean speed of 8.4 m/s in a 3.6 m/s wind, which is the minimum wind speed necessary for sustained dynamic soaring. The main result is that an albatross can soar upwind much faster that the wind speed. The upwind
dynamic soaring mode of a possible robotic albatross UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) is also modeled using a Rayleigh cycle. Maximum possible airspeeds are approximately equal to 9.5 times the wind speed of the upper layer. In a wind of 10 m/s, the maximum possible upwind (56 m/s) and across-wind (61 m/s) components of UAV velocity over the ocean result in a diagonal upwind velocity of 83 m/s. In sufficient wind, a UAV could, in principle, use fast diagonal speeds to rapidly survey large areas of the ocean surface and the marine boundary layer. Limitations to achieving such fast travel velocity are discussed and suggestions are made for further studies.

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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 18:54    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HERE BELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1prnBv3vemrERVvvzZ8Dgshlj8n5Yb2Pe/view?usp=sharing



The Flight of Albatross—How to Transform
It into Aerodynamic Engineering?


Günther Pfeifhofer*, Helmut Tributsch
Carinthia University of Applied Sciences, Villach, Austria
Email: *G.Pfeifhofer@fh-kaernten.at, Helmut.Tributsch@alice.it
Received 26 April 2014; revised 30 May 2014; accepted 12 June 2014
Copyright © 2014 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/


Abstract

The flight of albatross (Diomedea exulans) takes advantage of the up-drift which is determined by the product of relative wind velocity and it’s gradient above the sea surface, to power its elegant (dynamic) flight over the ocean. Some of the complicated flight manoeuvres are determined by biological necessities. From its most basic flight manoeuvre a technical aerodynamically scheme can be derived which allows the design of a mechanical technical prototype of a wind generator. It
is based on a rotational movement in combination with a skillful time dependent adjustment of the airfoil. Several technical possibilities are discussed and with one of these elaborated in some detail. The technology to be developed could be applied in highly asymmetric air streaming environment around high rise buildings, on mountain ridges and of course, also low above sea level and plains. Mathematical-technical conditions for power gain are discussed. The technology could, in principle, also be deployed to exploit velocity gradients in river water environment. The engineering challenges are significant and the presented work is just a blueprint for tasks to be accomplished.
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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 19:05    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HEREBELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1gFqvZ4D6GrgCfrm6T2dusVCM5tNNkn8J/view?usp=sharing


From Albatrosses to Long Range UAV Flight by Dynamic Soaring



Vincent Bonnin
A Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of requirements of the University
of The West of England, Bristol, and ISAE, Toulouse,
for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

Abstract

In the domain of UAVs, endurance and range are key utility factors. However, small-sized UAVs are faced with serious limitations regarding energy storage options. A way to address this challenge is to seek for energy from the surrounding environment. One flight technique, called dynamic soaring, has been perfected by large seabirds like the albatross, which enables them to wander effortlessly in southern oceans. This thesis investigates the feasibility to find inspiration from the biological world in order to address the issue of limited endurance. First of all, an extensive literature background sums-up a range of technical aspects that can be learnt out of the flight of albatrosses. It reviews their morphology, flight performance and sensitivity to wind strength, their flight characteristics and energy expenditure management. Then, a methodology to simulate dynamic soaring flight is built-up by focusing first on adequate models for the vehicle and for the environment. It details the way those models are described quantitatively and qualitatively. As for the vehicle, a point mass model is chosen and applied to fixed-wing gliders of several scales, as well as to an albatross of generic dimensions. The environment is first modelled by classical boundary layer theory on a rather flat surface and then refined by taking into account specificity about the ocean boundary layer, such as varying roughness length and surface waves. Equations of motion are detailed for both points of views, earth-relative and air relative. This yields two different sets of equations of motion, eventually representing equivalent physics. An optimization problem is then set in order to determine, for the vehicle, how to extract energy from its environment. Variations in objective function and in constraints are described before presenting the numerical integration scheme which converts the optimization problem into that of finite-dimension. The solving tools and their specificity are presented, followed by a validation of the overall methodology with a particular study case from the literature. Basic principles of dynamic soaring flight are explicated by using a specific closed-loop study case. Energy-harvesting mechanisms are disclosed locally and next integrated over the whole flight path. A further illustration of dynamic soaring isii provided by relaxing some periodicity constraints and opening the trajectory. The specificity of the ocean boundary layer environment is finally implemented and a refined energy-harvesting strategy is presented. Air relative equations of motion are dimensionless so as to highlight specific dynamic soaring behaviours, in the case of a simplified linear wind profile and eventually by finding an appropriate non-dimensionalization for a logarithmic wind profile. Conditions of similarities between dimensionless solutions are described and some basic DS characteristics are outlined. Finally, various dynamic soaring performance study case are computed. Optimized trajectories are implemented for the selected vehicles and compared on a required wind strength basis. The sensitivity of the required wind strength to the net flight heading as well as to the ground clearance and to the surface roughness length is determined by drawing performance charts. In order to enlarge the scope of favourable dynamic soaring conditions, thrust-augmented trajectories are considered. The range improvements offered by dynamic soaring are compared to the straight line case, for different wind strength and different net flight headings
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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 19:10    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HEREBELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/13AL_1OlwuZ9SFnlP1JFI3B1vf3_f3Bf5/view?usp=sharing


WING AND PRIMARY GROWTH OF THE WANDERING ALBATROSS


S. D. BERROW,N. HUN, R. HUMPIDGE, A. W. A. MURRAY AND I? A. PRINCE
British Antarctic Survey,Natural EnvironmentalResearchCouncil,High Cross,Madingley Road, Cambridge,
CB3 OET, UK, e-mail: sdbe@pcmail.nerc-bas.ac.uk


Abstract.

We investigated the relationship between body mass and the rate and pattern of feather growth of the four outermost primaries of Wandering Albatross (Diomedenenulam) chicks. Maximum growth rates were similar (4.5 mm day-‘) for all feathers and between sexes, although primaries of males were significantly longer than those of females.There was a distinctive pattern to primary growth with pl0 grown last, reaching its asymptote just prior to fledging. Primaries growing did so at different maximum rates; thus P7.
reached its asymptote at an earlier age than p8 or p9, but maximum growth rates were the same for all primaries. Maximum growth rates of p7 and p8 were significantly correlated with chick mass at the start of the period of primary growth, and chick mass also was correlated with age at fledging. The heavier the chick, the earlier it grew its primaries and
the younger it fledged. Fledging periods for Wandering Albatross chicks may be constrained by the time required to grow a full set of primaries. We suggest that the observed pattern of feather growth is a mechanism to minimize potential wear of the outer primaries prior to fledging.Key words: Diomedea exulans, growth rates, primaries, WanderingAlbatross, wing
growth.
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Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 19:14    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

paper ıs herebelow :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1HXh_BcGE08AdUC91o0GAlpJK1Iybkl4r/view?usp=sharing


Article


Albatross-Like Utilization of Wind Gradient for
Unpowered Flight of Fixed-Wing Aircraft


Shangqiu Shan * ID , Zhongxi Hou and Bingjie Zhu
College of Aerospace Sciences and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073,
China; hzx@nudt.edu.cn (Z.H.); zhubingjie@nudt.edu.cn (B.Z.)
* Correspondence: shanshangqiu@nudt.edu.cn; Tel.: +86-137-8729-3515
Received: 3 September 2017; Accepted: 12 October 2017; Published: 14 October 2017


Abstract:

The endurance of an aircraft can be considerably extended by its exploitation of the hidden energy of a wind gradient, as an albatross does. The process is referred to as dynamic soaring and there are two methods for its implementation, namely, sustainable climbing and the Rayleigh cycle.
In this study, the criterion for sustainable climbing was determined, and a bio-inspired method for implementing the Rayleigh cycle in a shear wind was developed. The determined sustainable climbing criterion promises to facilitate the development of an unpowered aircraft and the choice of a
more appropriate soaring environment, as was demonstrated in this study. The criterion consists of three factors, namely, the environment, aerodynamics, and wing loading. We develop an intuitive
explanation of the Raleigh cycle and analyze the energy mechanics of utilizing a wind gradient in unpowered flight. The energy harvest boundary and extreme power point were determined and used
to design a simple bio-inspired guidance strategy for implementing the Rayleigh cycle. The proposed strategy, which involves the tuning of a single parameter, can be easily implemented in real-time applications. In the results and discussions, the effects of each factor on climbing performance are examined and the sensitivity of the aircraft factor is discussed using five examples. Experimental MATLAB simulations of the proposed strategy and the comparison of the results with those of Gauss Pseudospectral Optimization Software confirm the feasibility of the proposed strategy.
Keywords: unpowered flight; dynamic soaring; wind gradient; energy extraction; micro fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle
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Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 19:18    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HERE BELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1OdpLsMWuzCP6PXxxaAo5gSOtaD4I8DGE/view?usp=sharing


Aerodynamic performance of albatross-inspired wing shape for marine unmanned air vehicles




A. Stempeck1, M. Hassanalian2, and A. Abdelkefi


Abstract

The wing shape of any flying object has an important role in its flight performance. When studying nature, it is found that albatrosses have the highest flight performance which allow these birds to fly thousands of
miles, even though they are the largest migrating bird. To study the effects of the wing shape on the aerodynamic performance of fixed wing drones, at first the wing of an albatross is patterned and compared
to other inspired wing shapes as and delta wing shapes. Considering similar wingspan, wing area, and aspect ratio, an aerodynamic analysis
is performed in the same conditions (airfoil and flight speed). The 3D-Panel and Horseshoe Vortex Lattice Methods are applied for all the wings. The results show that for lower angles of attack, the albatross wing
shape generated better flight performance (lift to drag ratio) than other geometric shapes. Also, in another study, an analysis is carried-out to compare the albatross wing shape with other migrating birds, such as the
artic tern, the sooty shearwater, the golden eagle, the great white pelican, and the whooper swan. It is found that albatrosses that have the ability to fly these long distances through soaring flight because of their higher
lift to drag ratio, when compared to other migrating birds. It should be noted that this study can provide the guidelines for the design of efficient marine drones
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Mustafa Umut Sarac
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Anmeldungsdatum: 19.09.2018
Beiträge: 77
Wohnort: Istanbul - Turkey

BeitragVerfasst am: 05.11.2018, 19:25    Titel: Antworten mit Zitat

PAPER IS HEREBELOW :

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1OLbXN_QVl5WixXQ5FYS4dsNo-Z01dJxG/view?usp=sharing



On Wings of the Minimum Induced Drag:Spanload Implications for Aircraft and Birds


Albion H. Bowers, and Oscar J. Murillo
Armstrong Flight Research Center, Edwards, California
Robert “Red” Jensen, and Brian Eslinger
Jacobs Technology, Inc., Edwards, California
Christian Gelzer
Logical Innovations, Inc., Edwards, California

March 2016

Abstract :

For nearly a century Ludwig Prandtl’s lifting-line theory remains a standard tool for understanding and analyzing aircraft wings. The tool, said Prandtl, initially points to the elliptical spanload as the most efficient
wing choice, and it, too, has become the standard in aviation.
Having no other model, avian researchers have used the elliptical spanload virtually since its introduction. Yet over the last half-century, research in bird flight has generated increasing data incongruous with the elliptical spanload.
In 1933 Prandtl published a little-known paper presenting a superior spanload: any other solution produces greater drag. We argue that this second spanload is the correct model for bird flight data. Based
on research we present a unifying theory for superior efficiency and coordinated control in a single solution.
Specifically, Prandtl’s second spanload offers the only solution to three aspects of bird flight: how birds are able to turn and maneuver without a vertical tail; why birds fly in formation with their wingtips overlapped;
and why narrow wingtips do not result in wingtip stall.
We performed research using two experimental aircraft designed in accordance with the fundamentals of Prandtl’s second paper, but applying recent developments, to validate the various potentials of the new
spanload, to wit: as an alternative for avian researchers, to demonstrate the concept of proverse yaw, and to offer a new method of aircraft control and efficiency.
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